That led to Economic expansion In the Yangtzs River valley accelerating. Song expansion: Soon after the new Song expansion, emperor Taizu made a centralized state power. With the highest economic growth of the period a real urban culture emerged in administrative and trade centers across the country. The Song dynasty was a period in China from 960 to 1279 characterized by intellectual growth, prosperity, and relative peace. The establishment of the Song Dynasty in 960 AD brought China to one of its heights economically, artistically, and intellectually. The original firing temperatures of porcelain pieces unearthed from Tengxian Zhonghe kiln, Rongxian Chengguan kiln, Beiliu Lingdong kiln and Guiping Xishan kiln from the Song Dynasty (960–1279AD) of Guangxi were preliminarily studied by thermal expansion method. The first emperor of the Song Dynasty adopted a centralized bureaucratic system employing scholar-officials. The Southern Song was established in the south of China. Both the poetry and paintings were commonly painted on a scroll with ink and sometimes color.
Chinese society during the Song dynasty (960–1279) was marked by political and legal reforms, a philosophical revival of Confucianism, and the development of cities beyond administrative purposes into centers of trade, industry, and maritime commerce. The Song Dynasty is historically divided into two phases, Northern Song (960-1127 AD) and Southern Song (1127-1279 AD). Many times the poetry stressed political angst, but frequently the poem would describe nature and the seasons. Song relation with foreign countries: The Song Dynasty lasted from 960 to 1279. The Song Dynasty ruled China between 960 and 1279 CE and is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. Broadly speaking, both societies were male-dominated patriarchies. During the Northern Song (960–1127), the capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China. Making a comparison among the Chinese dynasties, it is confirmed that the Song Dynasty together with the Tang (618 - 907) and the Han (206BC - 220AD) dynasties achieved immense levels of nation-wide prominence. The strong intellectual culture promoted the arts, which flourished. However, a closer inspection leads us to realise the many differences between the societies of the Song Chinese and the Yuan Mongols. The Song Dynasty was also known for its poetry.